It is a design strategy that includes preplanned, systematic variations in training specificity, intensity, and volume organized in periods or cycles within an overall program. It is encouraged to be used as a year-long plan that is broken into smaller time increments. Han Selye began developing general adaptive syndrome GAS close to The concept of periodization is based on GAS which was founded on the basis of progressive overloading 10, p.
It implies that for optimal training adaptations to occur, training loads, volume, and bioenergetic specificity should be methodically interchanged. Training blocks should switch between high, moderate, and low training intensities so that recovery is allowed between training sessions 2. Periodization uses supercompensation.
Facets of Periodization Intensity versus Volume When deciding the amount of work and type of work to prescribe athletes, it is vital to understand the inverse relationship between intensity and volume.
As the volume of workload increases for athletes, the intensity of the work will have a planned decrease. Athletes cannot maintain a high intensity over a high volume of work so coaches and athletes must adjust appropriately. This means the athletes can only have a high intensity, a high volume, or moderate amounts of both. The adjustments coaches and athletes make to intensity and volume of workload have a direct effect on volume load.
The amount of total volume in resistance training is essentially repetitions multiplied by the load which can also be called volume load. The least amount of volume load to prescribe would be enough to cause strength and fitness gains. The greatest amount to prescribe is to the point of diminishing returns. Beyond this point, there are no more positive benefits, but instead they produce harmful side effects. The volume load should change as athletes improve in a program.
Advanced athletes usually place more significance on the intensity of training which can be measured as task execution power output. Variable programming strategies tend to yield better results than linear programming in this arena. Greater workload is often warranted for gains in endurance aspects of fitness.
This higher work volume can help develop a base of work capacity as well as affect the duration and stability of related training effects. It is a favorable prerequisite for intense focus in special and technical preparation. Macrocycles and Mesocycles To fully understand periodization, it is imperative to discuss macrocycles and mesocycles. Macrocycles and mesocycles are fundamental organizational planning elements used throughout periodization. The larger period of training is considered a macrocycle and can range from multiple months to four years long.
The mesocycle is what the macrocyle is broken up into and is numerous weeks to numerous months. There are also microcycles, which are the broken up periods of a mesocycle. The microcycle is focused more on daily and weekly specific training differences, whereas the macrocycle is the bigger picture of the overall training goals and styles.
The traditional periodization system, the macrocycle is divided up into two major parts; the first is for more wide-ranging work in the preparatory period and the second is geared toward sport-specific work and getting ready for competition in the competition period 3.
Periodization is simply devising a macrocycle that has specific mesocycles and microcycles for each planned period. For the neuromuscular system to fully benefit from the training load or stress, it is imperative to vary the volume and intensity. If the system is allowed to adapt to stressors without associated changes in overload, the body will no longer need to adapt, and increases in the wanted results will stop in time.
Planning changes in volume and intensity assists in avoiding this problem since the load on the neuromuscular system is constantly changing. The most common and beneficial way to utilize a periodization program is to manipulate the volume and intensity of the workouts. As the season approaches, the volume will continue to drop and the intensity will increase with more of a focus on sport-specific activities. Each phase will be distinctly different, but all have the goal of preparing athletes for optimal performance in their respective sports.
The preparatory phase is widely considered the off-season and involves no competitions. It is the longest of the four periods and has only a select few sport-specific activities. The purpose of this period is to get athletes ready for intense training and increase their strength and conditioning. The workouts in this period are longer and less intense than in other periods. There is not a large amount of sport-specific movements because the athletes will most likely be more fatigued from the high volume and would not improve as much from those movements during this time.
The farther along a program gets into the preparatory phase, there will be less volume and more intensity in their workouts. The training starts at a rather low intensity and higher volume. As the phase progresses over the weeks, there are more sport-specific activities included in the training regimen. For example, basketball players may start this phase with slower endurance-based runs and a resistance training program geared towards high number of repetitions reps with lower loads.
Before beginning the basic strength phase, a recovery week may be needed with lower intensity and volume to help prepare for optimal gains. Fall Program Registration Happening Now! Athlete Performance Training. Compete Indoor Sports. Enroll in a Program.
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Tim Hewett, a leading researcher who is always helping adolescent female athletes since early 's train safely, used the following three  phases so each female athlete was prepared and ready for the next, more demanding, stage of training:. Fundamentals phase - "proper use of techinique to build a base of strength, power, and ability. Performance phase - "achieving maximal vertical height jump height. During the technique phase: "phrases such as "on your toes", "straight as an arrow", light as a feather", "shock absorber", and "recoil like a spring" were used as verbal and visualization ques for each phase of the jump.
Quickness is "all about muscle memory [and training].
Practice and repetition create shortcuts in the neural pathways that transmit messages from brain to body, decreasing reaction time. Training to play sports is necessary for today's female athlete to minimize her risk for lower body injury and to help her become faster, quicker, and stronger.
Our staff, and your custom strength card will guide you through this portion of your workout. Maximal training can lead to physical and mental burnout and that can produce the female triad cycle. The workouts in this period are longer and less intense than in other periods. Are you sure you want to delete this family member? This movement is a great way to teach stability throughout the entire body while reinforcing proper alignment in the hips, knees and ankles.
Will lean muscle detract from my appearance off of my field of play? Absolutely not!! Any person with a nicelky toned body looks better than a bulky individual in Warren Potash's opinion. Just Do It! Have you heard this before? Probably - you think of the Nike commercial.
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Nike did not come up with their swoosh and this staement by accident. The Power curve looks like a backwards "S" on its side. Training will help you turn that into a checkmark. As you develop lean muscle, you will be able to do movements without thinking - hence: Just do it!